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SELF-CONTROL, CHILD EFFECTS, AND INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL: A DIRECT TEST OF THE PRIMACY OF SOCIOGENIC FACTORS
K. Herbert Hardwick
Utah State University
University of Calgary
It is often assumed that self-control and informal social control are compatible with their direct influence on adolescent misconduct. It is also frequently assumed that informal social control theory can account for ontogenetic influences, like self-control, and sociogenic influences in a manner consistent with both perspectives. And finally it is assumed that processes of informal social control have been shown to have the strongest effect on adolescent delinquency while at the same time mediating ontogenetic influences like self-control. These misconceptions can be traced to the original presentation of informal social control theory. This paper represents the first step of a direct re-examination of the role of informal social control in the genesis of adolescent delinquency as presented in Sampson and Laub’s (1995) Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life.
The results show that the importance (i.e., primacy and mediating power) of informal social control in explaining the emergence of adolescent delinquency was overstated in Crime in the Making.
A STUDY OF VOLUNTEERS IN COMMUNITY-BASED RESTORATIVE JUSTICE PROGRAMS
Karen A. Souza and Mandeep K. Dhami
University of Cambridge, UK
Community-based restorative justice (RJ) programs rely heavily on volunteers to perform a range of duties, including facilitating case conferences. We surveyed 76 volunteers from 12 RJ programs throughout British Columbia, Canada, in order to (1) identify the characteristics of volunteers, (2) document their involvement in RJ, (3) measure their motivations to volunteer, (4) explore the skills they perceive to be useful, (5) document the training they receive, and (6) determine the factors that influence satisfaction with their roles. This study was guided by a conceptual model of the RJ volunteer process. We found that RJ volunteers comprise primarily older Caucasian women. Volunteers were mostly recruited by word of mouth and were motivated by their commitment to RJ ideals. Although they brought a wealth of skills and qualifications, volunteers were trained in order to provide a range of services to programs. Finally, volunteers were generally satisfied with their roles in RJ programs. These findings have implications for volunteer recruitment, training, and retention.
ABORIGINAL GANGS AND THEIR (DIS)PLACEMENT: CONTEXTUALIZING RECRUITMENT, MEMBERSHIP AND STATUS
Department of Sociology, University of Alberta
Native Counselling Services of Alberta
Interviews with ex-gang members, police officers, and correctional service personnel suggest that the risk factors for involvement in gangs are abundant for Aboriginal youth and young adults. Aboriginal ex-gang members report the burden of discrimination and labeling based on race, in addition to the structural inequality and lack of opportunity reported as causal factors to gang involvement by gang researchers. Disadvantaged and disillusioned, encouraged by gang-involved family and friends, Aboriginal youth turn to gangs for a sense of identify and purpose. Interestingly, decades after their formation, groups such as the Indian Posse, Manitoba Warriors, Alberta Warriors, and Native Syndicate may not only be relegated to the outskirts of legitimate society but are also marginalized within the criminal world, in their organization and behind bars. Understanding Aboriginal gangs requires consideration of contextual factors, including the presence and interaction of precursors to gang involvement. These factors contribute to their pronounced presence in prisons and the suggestion that despite decades of existence they are relegated to street gang status.
ADAPTATION DE LA PCL-SV À L’ÉVALUATION DES ADOLESCENTS SUIVIS EN CENTRE JEUNESSE : UNE ÉTUDE PRÉLIMINAIRE
Groupe de recherche sur les inadaptations sociales de l’enfance (GRISE),
Université de Sherbrooke, Centre de recherche, Institut Philippe Pinel
Centre de recherche, Institut Philippe Pinel
Centre de recherche, Institut Philippe Pinel
Groupe de recherche sur les inadaptations sociales de l’enfance (GRISE), Université de Sherbrooke
A number of studies have shown the assessment of psychopathy to provide a useful basis for predicting adult criminal recidivism. However, where research on delinquent adolescents is concerned, the findings have been derived from rather small samples, such that additional investigation is warranted. The objective of the present study is to conduct an initial examination of the reliability and validity of the French-language version of the "Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version" (PCL:SV) and to compare results against several other samples reported in the literature. The sample of this study included 48 young people aged from 15 to 19 who were recruited from three Centres jeunesse du Québec (Quebec youth centres). All of the youths selected had exhibited a conduct disorder or delinquent behaviour during adolescence. Psychopathy assessment performed using PCL:SV shows good internal consistency of scales, along with very satisfactory inter-rater reliability. Correlations between PCL:SV and related indices (antisocial personality disorder; frequency and range of delinquent activities; frequency and range of use of psychoactive substances, etc.) occur much as expected. On the whole, the psychometric properties of the scale are similar to those using adult samples or to other versions of PCL (PCL-R revised or PCL-YV). This study also puts forward a number of recommendations concerning the pursuit of work validating the French-language version of this scale.